Mobile Snack Bars and Food Stalls

Production hygiene

To produce food safely, it is essential to ensure good production hygiene. Information on this topic is provided here.

Raw materials, processing areas and processing steps can be divided into "clean" and "unclean". "Clean" means that the potential incoming source of general contamination is reduced.
For example,

  • fruit and vegetables: Unwashed fruit and vegetables are categorised as "unclean", washed and/or peeled fruit and vegetables are categorised as "clean".

Contamination may be direct or indirect.

In keeping with good production hygiene practices, make sure that there are if possible no contact points between clean and unclean areas in your business. This will reduce the risk of contamination.

Observe the following principles:

  • As far as possible, design the flows of goods such that clean products, unclean products and waste products do not cross each other (Chart showing possible flows of goods)
  • Always store raw goods, semi-finished products and finished products separately from each other.
  • Clean and where necessary disinfect equipment, tools and work surfaces between the processing and handling of different products and processing steps.

To ensure that you receive raw materials in perfect condition, it is necessary to inspect the goods on delivery or purchase. In the case of delivered goods, the inspection should also be documented.

The following points should generally be observed:

  • Freshness: The goods / raw materials should not smell bad, and there should be no visible discolouration or signs of decay.
  • Frozen / chilled products show the corresponding product temperatures (see table below). Temperatures are taken on delivery of the goods, by checking random samples. It is recommended that you use an infrared thermometer.
  • If using a thermometer probe, make sure that you clean and disinfect it before and after use. Goods that have been pierced must be used directly, or where applicable, re-packed.
  • There are no signs of pest infestation, the goods are clean and free of contamination and decay.
  • Where applicable, the best-before date is indicated and has not been exceeded. If the date has been exceeded, it is recommended that you reject the delivery.
  • If shelf life is indicated and exceeded, you may not make any further use of the goods. It is recommended that you reject the delivered goods.
  • There are also foodstuffs that do not have any best-before dates, e.g.
    • Fresh fruit, vegetables and potatoes that have not yet been processed (not applicable for sprouting pulses and seeds)
    • Wine, liqueurs, sparkling wines, aromatised wines and similar products from other fruits.
    • Drinks with an alcohol content of 10% by volume or more.
    • Baked goods that are normally consumed within 24 hours.
    • Vinegar.
    • Table salt.
    • Sugar and confectionery products.
    • Chewing gum and similar products for chewing.
  • Packaging and/or containers are clean and undamaged.
  • Delivery vehicle and driver look clean and hygienic

 

Frozen/chilled goodsProduct temperature on delivery
Fresh meat, cheese, delicatessen products Max. +7°C
Meat preparations Max. +4°C
Game Max. +4°C
Fresh poultry Max. +4°C
Minced meat Max. +2°C
Offal Max. +3°C
Fresh fish Max. +2°C, or in melting ice
Frozen goods At least -18°C

Source: DEHOGA Federal Association

When storing food, observe the following points and specified temperatures (see table below):

  • Store raw foodstuffs and prepared meals separately. If, for space reasons, it is not possible to store them separately, make sure that they are adequately packed and/or wrapped.
  • Do not store goods directly on the floor.
  • Store loose goods in boxes, and do not store these boxes on the floor.
  • Cover / seal goods as a matter of course.
  • Store food in glass containers in the lower sections.
  • Do not store cleaning and disinfecting products together with foodstuffs or packaging materials.
  • Your storage rooms should generally be dry and well ventilated, while ensuring that pests are prevented from entering them.
  • Avoid direct sunlight and other heat sources in storage places.
  • Stack and store goods in such a way that the first goods to expire (shelf life, best-before date) are used first.
  • Regularly check and document the temperatures in refrigeration and freezer facilities.
  • Keep storage rooms clean and tidy, and clean and disinfect them regularly or as required

 

ProductsStorage temperature (product temperature)
Fresh meat, cheese, delicatessen products Max. +7°C
Meat products Max. +4°C
Minced meat 2°C or deep-frozen to at least -18°C
Dairy products Max. +10°C
Fresh poultry, minced meat, game Max. +4°C
Offal Max. +3°C
Fresh fish In melting ice, max. +2°C
Deep-frozen At least -18°C
Ready-to-eat salads, sliced fruit Max. +7°C (recommended)

Source: DEHOGA Federal Association

Do not use deep-frying fat for too long, as it can deteriorate. There is also an increased risk of the fat catching alight if it is used for too long. Observe the following principles and inspect your deep-fat fryer daily (when you use it) to check the following points:

  • The temperature of the fat should not exceed 175°C. Excessive temperatures lead to a higher concentration of acrylamide. The possible carcinogenic effect of acrylamide cannot be excluded.
  • Do not use deep-frying fat for longer than 20 hours of operation.
  • Do not mix old and new deep-frying fat. Always completely replace the deep-frying fat.
  • If you detect a change in smell or taste in the fat, immediately dispose of the fat.
  • Always dispose of food residues in the deep-fat fryer at once.
  • A checklist template can be downloaded here

To kill germs as effectively as possible through heat, you should maintain the following core temperatures and times when frying food:

  • 70°C for at least 10 minutes or
  • 80°C for at least 3 minutes.

Frozen food should be defrosted at refrigerator temperatures of between 4°C and 7°C. This prevents the growth of any unwanted germs. The following principles should also be observed:

  • Defrosting water may contain germs. It must therefore be possible for it to flow away, e.g. using perforated plates; the defrosting water must not come in contact with (other) foodstuffs.
  • Food that does not require refrigeration, such as bread or baked products, can be defrosted at room temperature, 15°C-25°C.

When refrigerating or freezing food that has been heated, observe the following points:

  • The product temperature must have cooled down from 65°C to at least 10°C within a maximum of 3 hours.
  • You can then keep the products refrigerated at a max. temperature of 7°C.
  • Flat containers increase the surface area, which in turn speeds up the cooling process.
  • Cover the products to protect them from any negative effects.

 

Freezing fresh raw materials or prepared meals increases their shelf life. The corresponding shelf life and quality of the frozen items depend on the freshness and quality of the source products. Observe the following points:

  • Mark on the product the date of freezing, its intended use and when it is to be used by.
  • The storage temperature of frozen products must be -18°C and lower.
  • For quality reasons, it is recommended that you do not store frozen products for longer than 2 months.
  • Raw minced meat and raw minced meat products should not be frozen. Minced meat that has already defrosted may not be re-frozen.

Only use heating equipment for keeping the food hot, not for actually heating it.
It is recommended that when keeping food hot, the food does not go below a temperature of 65°C. Do not keep food hot for longer then 3 hours. These recommendations are drawn up by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) and are set out in DIN 10508.

If you use a microwave to heat meals up, make sure there are no pockets of cold by stirring the meals and then heating them again. It is recommended that the food reaches a minimum temperature of 75°C throughout.

Replace containers that have already been used, instead of re-filling them. Clean and disinfect any receptacles used for dispensing mayonnaise, mustard, dressings, etc., before re-filling them. In this way you will prevent any possible contamination.

Service counters equipped with a chiller cabinet must also have checks carried out to ensure that refrigeration temperatures are observed, and this must be documented.

ProductMaximum refrigeration temperature
Butter +10°C
Cheese and cheese preparations +10°C
Fresh milk +8°C
Other chilled dairy products +10°C
Fresh meat +7°C
Meat preparations +4°C
Minced meat, packed (self-service chiller cabinet) +2°C
Minced meat, prepared and temporarily stored for immediate supply to customers (service counter) +7°C
Fresh poultry and fresh poultry products +4°C
Small game +4°C
Large game +7°C
Hen's eggs (as of 18th day from date of laying) +8°C
Food containing raw eggs, e.g. mayonnaise made with fresh eggs +7°C
Perishable egg products +4°C
Fresh fish products, cooked crab and mollusc products +2°C or in ice
Live mussels +10°C
Meat preparations from offal for handling and processing in meals +4°C
Ice cream for dispensing -10°C

Source: BGN, ASI guideline for good food hygiene practices in mobile food establishments, 2009, Mannheim, 29, German Food Hygiene Regulations governing Foodstuffs of Animal Origin.

Hand Schmutz Arbeitskleidung

It is important that you observe good hygiene practices. This includes:

  • Washing and disinfecting your hands before touching fresh goods, such as raw meat.
  • Wearing clean work wear and where necessary hair-covering nets or hats.
  • Always wash your hands after touching money and before touching food.
  • If you have a display cabinet above refrigerating equipment -> see refrigerating equipment

When handling perishable foods, additional training is required in accordance with section 4 of the German Food Hygiene Regulations (LMHV). You are required to take this training if you produce or process any of the food listed in this section, or place it on the market. Click here to find a training course near you.

Ei kaputt Eier normal

When eggs are delivered to you, make sure that they are not damaged. Make sure that the best-before date (28 days after the date on which the eggs are laid) and the date after which the eggs are to be refrigerated (18 days after the date on which the eggs are laid) are specified. Eggs requiring refrigeration should be stored at a temperature of 5°C to max. 8°C.

It is recommended that you remove the eggs from their outer packaging and store the egg boxes in an easy-to-clean container.

Eier Karton

Cardboard boxes are often contaminated with germs. You should therefore avoid them coming into contact with other raw materials.

Spiegelei

The processing of raw eggs, e.g. breaking them into a container, should be carried out separately from other food processes. Clean and disinfect the work surfaces used when processing the raw eggs. Discard the egg shells directly into the waste. Break fresh eggs just before they are to be used, and consume without delay, but no later than within two hours, if they are intended for hot food (section 20a of the German Food Hygiene Regulations governing Foodstuffs of Animal Origin (Tier-LMVO)).

Mayo 24hours

Mayonnaise for further processing or direct supply should be freshly produced. Refrigerate the mayonnaise and preparations made from it at max. 7°C. Consume preparations within 24 hours, otherwise you must dispose of them.

Salmonellen

Invisible germs, such as salmonella, can accumulate on the shell or inside of the eggs. These germs can then be transferred to the kitchen, and therefore to other food and meals, via hands and equipment, such as dishes, whisks or mixers. It is therefore important to make sure that you wash and disinfect your hands before and after handling eggs. Clean and disinfect (including by heat) all utensils and equipment that have come into contact with eggs. Carry out all work steps, such as washing, chopping or preparing, separately or at different times from the processing of other raw materials.

Specifications on handling foodstuffs of animal origin are set out in the German Food Hygiene Regulations and in the German Food Hygiene Regulations governing Foodstuffs of Animal Origin.

There are no legal requirements governing temperature and times when heating eggs for the preparation of eggs and egg products.
As germs are present on raw foodstuffs, and these may be pathogenic, it is recommended that you always heat eggs and egg products. Germs are killed at specific temperatures that are maintained for a set length of time. For shorter times and/or at lower temperatures, you run the risk of not killing all the germs.

Fisch Kuehleinrichtungen

Make sure that fresh fish has a temperature of 2°C or that it is packed in ice when delivered. Clear, bulging eyes with black pupils, red gills, scales tightly attached to the body, shiny surface, firm consistency and an intact layer of slime are all indicators of fresh fish.

Immediately after delivery, store fish and fish products in cold-storage rooms / refrigerators, to maintain the cold chain.

Store different types of fish separately from each other. Make sure that fresh fish is stored in clean containers with a lid on, to product against any contamination.

Maintain the permissible storage temperature of max. 2°C. If the fish is stored in melting ice, make sure that the melted ice water can drain away.

 

There are many different microorganisms present on the surface of fish. To prevent these microorganisms from spreading to other foodstuffs and multiplying there, wash and disinfect your hands before and after touching fish. Handle and process fish separately from other foodstuffs, and afterwards wash and disinfect any utensils and equipment used, as well as any work surfaces.

Colour-code your equipment by product group. For example, only use blue boards and knives for fish.

Brett 02

Auftauen

Defrost frozen fish in a cold-storage room at a temperature of max. 7°C. Make sure that the defrosting water can drain away and does not come in contact with other food.

There are no legal requirements governing temperature and times when heating fish for the preparation of fish and fish products.
As germs are present on raw foodstuffs, and these may be pathogenic, it is recommended that you always heat through fish and fish products. Germs are killed at specific temperatures that are maintained for a set length of time. For shorter times and/or at lower temperatures, you run the risk of not killing all the germs.
e.g. with a breaded fish fillet, it is recommended that you reach a core temperature of 72°C for at least 2 minutes.

Specifications on handling foodstuffs of animal origin are set out in the German Food Hygiene Regulations and in the German Food Hygiene Regulations governing Foodstuffs of Animal Origin.

Fleischwaren Hackfleisch Fleisch

On delivery, the temperature of fresh meat may not exceed 7°C. Bear in mind that minced meat is a particularly sensitive product, and must not exceed a temperature of 2°C. For meat preparations, a maximum temperature of 4°C must be adhered to.

Immediately after delivery, store meat and meat products in cold-storage rooms / refrigerators, to maintain the cold chain.

The storage temperature for fresh meat is max. 7°C, and for minced meat is max. 4°C. Only keep meat and meat products in clean containers, open goods should be covered with film or a lid. Make sure meat and poultry are stored separately.

If frequent deliveries are received, make sure that the goods are adequately marked, so that the origin and best-before date can be ascertained at any time.

Only touch meat after washing your hands. Carry out all work steps, such as washing, chopping or preparing, separately or at different times from the processing of other raw materials. After touching fresh or defrosted meat, clean your hands thoroughly. Thoroughly wash and, if need be, disinfect all equipment used, such as knives, boards and machines after use, using hot water and detergent.

There are many different microorganisms present on the surface of meat, which can be spread via the hands or via contact with equipment. Colour-code your equipment by product group. For example, only use red boards and knives for cutting and handling meat and meat products.

Brett 03

Specifications on handling foodstuffs of animal origin are set out in the German Food Hygiene Regulations and in the German Food Hygiene Regulations governing Foodstuffs of Animal Origin.

Auftauen

Defrost frozen meat in a cold-storage room at a temperature of max. 7°C. Make sure that the defrosting water can drain away and does not come in contact with other food.

Fleischwolf

Minced meat and minced meat products are a particularly sensitive product group. When meat is minced or ground, its surface area is increased. This means that germs are given a larger area to attack. As a result, particularly stringent hygiene measures should be taken when handling minced meat and minced meat products. In addition to the points listed above relating to hygiene while working and product temperature, you should also take note of the following points:

  • Consume minced meat immediately. The minced meat should have been completely processed or cooked through by the end of the work shift or close of business.
  • Produce your minced meat as soon as possible after the time of supply and/or processing.
  • Purchase your minced meat from a specialist processing business, and follow the producer's instructions as regards shelf life and temperature.
  • When handling and processing minced meat, pay particular attention to the cleanliness of equipment and work surfaces (cleaning and disinfecting)

As the specifications regarding the storage temperature of minced meat are based on business-specific production and processing procedures, please contact the relevant authority. They will be able to clarify which temperatures are applicable for your business.

Wild

As game and game products have a high level of contamination with germs, it is important to comply with the points listed above on hygiene while working. It is recommended that you only serve game and game products that have been thoroughly cooked through.

There are no legal requirements governing temperature and times when heating meat for the preparation of meat and meat products.

As germs are present on raw foodstuffs, and these may be pathogenic, it is recommended that you always heat through meat and meat products. Germs are killed at specific temperatures that are maintained for a set length of time. For shorter times and/or at lower temperatures, you run the risk of not killing all the germs.

The following table gives some temperature and time settings by way of example.

Meat loaf 72°C core temperature 2 minutes
Meat balls 72°C core temperature 2 minutes
Stuffed peppers 72°C core temperature 2 minutes

On delivery, the temperature of fresh poultry and poultry products may not exceed 4°C. Immediately after delivery, store poultry and poultry products in cold-storage rooms / refrigerators, to maintain the cold chain.

The storage temperature for poultry and poultry products is max. 4°C. Only keep poultry in clean containers, open goods should be covered with film or a lid Make sure poultry and meat are stored separately.

Salmonellen

Bacteria such as salmonella may accumulate on the surface of fresh or defrosted poultry. To prevent this bacteria from spreading to other foodstuffs and multiplying there, wash and disinfect your hands before and after touching poultry. Handle and process poultry separately from other foodstuffs, and afterwards wash and disinfect any equipment and work surfaces used.

Colour-code your equipment by product group. For example, only use yellow boards and knives for cutting and handling poultry and poultry products.

Brett 01

Specifications on handling foodstuffs of animal origin are set out in the German Food Hygiene Regulations and in the German Food Hygiene Regulations governing Foodstuffs of Animal Origin.

There are no legal requirements governing temperature and times when heating poultry for the preparation of poultry and poultry products.
As germs are present on raw foodstuffs, and these may be pathogenic, it is recommended that you always heat through poultry. Germs are killed at specific temperatures that are maintained for a set length of time. For shorter times and/or at lower temperatures, you run the risk of not killing all the germs.
For example, with rotisserie chicken, it is recommended that you reach a core temperature of 72°C for at least 2 minutes.

Milch 2 Kuehleinrichtungen

Bear in mind that fresh, liquid cream must not exceed a temperature of 7°C on delivery. For other milk and dairy products, an upper limit of 10°C is applicable. Milk and dairy products must be stored in cold-storage rooms / refrigerators immediately after delivery. Immediately after delivery, store cream, milk and other dairy products in your refrigeration facilities, to maintain the cold chain.

24hours

The delivery temperatures must not be exceeded for the rest of the time for which the products are stored. Products that contain freshly whipped cream or cream mixture, such as cakes or cream-containing fillings, must be consumed as soon as possible, and no later than 24 hours after they have been prepared.

Milk and dairy products contain many different microorganisms. To prevent these microorganisms from spreading to other foodstuffs and multiplying there, wash and disinfect your hands before and after touching milk and dairy products. Handle and process milk and dairy products separately from other foodstuffs, and afterwards wash and disinfect any equipment and work surfaces used.

Do not whip cream until just before you use it.

It is recommended that you colour-code your equipment by product group. For example, use white boards and knives for cutting and handling firm dairy products, such as cheese or ricotta.

Specifications on handling foodstuffs of animal origin are set out in the German Food Hygiene Regulations and in the German Food Hygiene Regulations governing Foodstuffs of Animal Origin.

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